By Steven Hawley
Watermarking is one of the main technologies used to identify whether audiovisual content is being distributed and consumed through legitimate channels – and if the content is not where it’s supposed to be, to help identify the source and the origin of the ‘leak.’
During IBC, I learned of two other interesting applications.
Watermarks to detect deepfakes
In these times of disinformation and media trickery, the doctoring of videos of public figures has become common and has become a tool of politics. Hence, another watermarking use case has emerged: to verify that the content is what it is supposed to be, has come from a legitimate source; and is not a deepfake itself.
I heard more than one story about legitimate content providers applying watermarks at the point of production or at release into distribution exactly for this purpose. If someone suspects the veracity of the video, the watermark can be extracted by forensic analysis to confirm it. Or, if a video clip or image is found in a deepfake video, its rights-holder can analyze it and potentially find who used it without having rights.
Technical barriers to producing deepfakes are falling: Samsung scientists in Moscow have developed a way to create convincing deepfake videos with just one still image frame.
On the detection side, researchers at NYU have been working on this use-case, and published a paper in February. Microsoft, the Partnership on AI, Facebook and others are running a contest called the Deepfake Detection Challenge to motivate further research.
Watermarks that carry value
Two industry friends referred me to a South African company called Custos, which uses watermarking in combination with blockchain to associate video content with monetary value and gather piracy intelligence directly from the file sharing communities.
For example, movies sold as downloads can contain a smart contract ‘security deposit’ which proves that the movie is still in the intended recipient’s control. If the movie finds its way onto a pirate site, Custos technology enables any downloader to extract the deposit as a bounty. This immediately identifies the source of the leak, while keeping the bounty hunter completely anonymous. Another application is to embed license information inside stock photos, and offer a purchase credit as an incentive to buy more images legitimately.
Traditional watermarking applications
The classic application is to mark reviewer copies of movies, in case the reviewer leaks it into pirate distribution.
For video streaming, a watermarking process can reside within the video player or device, to embed a device ID or session information into the content, client-side. Alternatively, two copies of the video can be generated, using a server-side process to apply one watermark to the “A” copy and another to the “B” copy. The “A” and “B” segments are then assembled in unique sequences “on the fly” for each video streaming session. Watermarks are undetectable by the human visual system, but if suspected pirated content is analyzed, it can be associated with an end user account.
Watermarks can also be used to identify a theatre screening or a production facility where the content may have ‘escaped’ into pirate distribution.
The technical requirements for these new watermarking use-cases for authenticity and value are the same ones used to verify legitimate distribution: they must be sufficiently robust to resist distortion, analog-digital-analog conversion, collusion and other attacks.
Have you heard any unusual use-cases for watermarking? Let me hear from you!